Chief George Hudson
Chief George Hudson was born in 1808 in Mississippi and passed from this life in November of 1865. George was born in the State of Mississippi in the year of 1808 and lived with his family on Bywyah Creek, Bywyah (now spelled Bywy), about 20 miles West of the town of Mayhew and died in November of the year 1865.
He is buried across the road from where his house and farm once was located and just a mile West of the present Eagletown Burial Ground, in an unmarked grave near the Mountain Fork Bridge at Eagletown In Oklahoma.
In 1831, the records show that he lived near Noshechia Creek in the Moshulatubbe district with his household consiting of 5 persons, listing one male over the age of 16. He was allowed 80 achers by the 1830 treaty.
This Painting depicts George Hudson carrying his Mother on the Trail of Tears in the winter of 1831-32 and was painted by artist Garland Neal Taylor who lives in Durant Oklahoma. We have tried to reach him to see if we can get prints made up, but have been unable to reach him as yet..
This digital image of the painting can be found here --->
A History of Chief George Hudson
George Hudson was a Wheelwright by trade and a farmer, and also tried his hand at mining. His education consisted of a brief attendance at Mayhew Missionary School in Mississippi near the town of Columbus and he later held various Public Offices.
Rev. Cyrus Kingsbury head Missionary stationed at Pine Ridge Mission, reported in September 1836 that; “George Hudson who was educated and learnt his trade at Mayhew in the Old Nation, makes wheels on Mountain Fork, the best I have seen in the Nation.”
He became a lawyer and was known for his oratory skill and was seated on the Choctaw National Council from the years 1844 to 1850. He was the Chairman of the Doaksville Constitution Convention in 1860 and was elected as the 1st Principal Chief of the Choctaw Nation in the year 1860.
George was born to a Caucasian male and a full blood Native American Choctaw female that is listed as "Widow Hudson" on the 1831 Armstrong Census Rolls for the State of Mississippi.
George emigrated from Mississippi in December 1831 to Indian Territory (now Southeastern Oklahoma), arriving in the spring of 1832, where he settling on the west side of the Mountain Fork River in Eagletown, Eagle County, which is now, called McCurtain County, Oklahoma.
While he was Chief of the Choctaw Nation during the Civil War, he tried to keep the Choctaw Nation neutral but was later pressured to side with the Confederacy.
He died 3 years and one month after his 1st and only term expired of serving as Chief of the Choctaws in November of 1865. He was the older Brother of James Hudson who was the father of the noted Peter James Hudson. Nothing is known of his father other than he being a white man from Mississippi.
It is believed that by 1831, George's father had died or had taken a "wilderness divorce" and thus the mother was listed in the 1831 Rolls as "Widow" Hudson.
When the eastern tribes of Choctaws were removed to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), the "Widow", her three sons, including George and James Hudson, were compelled to go along with the first removal party that departed from Mississippi through Memphis, Tennessee in December 1831.
Note: Ernest Hooser, the Grandson of Peter James Hudson, Chief George Hudson's Nephew told me that the Hudson's left Mississippi on October 15th and were walking all the way until they boarded the Ferry Boat at the Mississippi River, then they went down river to the Arkansas River, at which point the boat broke down and they got off on foot again.
George's mother "Widow" Hudson passed away en-route, one of the many who did not survive the long, sad journey of the "Trail of Tears".
The party arrived in the Mountain Fork area in the first week of March 1832.
Note: (Ernest Hooser told me that it was in the month of February)
George later settled on lands about a mile west of Eagletown in the immediate proximity of the old Beth-a-bara Mission and became a farmer, and this part of Indian Territory remained his home until his death.
Although he had very few educational advantages, he practiced law before the tribal courts, served as a member of the Choctaw Council, and served as presiding officer at the Constitutional Convention at Doaksville in 1860.
In October of the year 1860 George Hudson was elected Chief of the Choctaws and served until October in the year 1862. He was made the Apuckshenubbe District Trustee in 1864.
After his attempt and failure to be re-elected as Chief, he retired to his home beside the Mountain Fork Rive
George, Chief of the Choctaws was serving in that office at the time that a decision had to be made whether or not to join the Confederacy in the Civil War.
Chief John Ross of the Cherokees and Chief George Hudson of the Choctaws worked to keep the Indians in Oklahoma neutral, but secessionist feeling was intense, especially among the Indian cotton planters who owned slaves, and tribal friction and factions developed.
Ross owned slaves, but favored the Union position; so his Cherokee rival, Chief Stand Waite, took charge of the Cherokee secessionists.
At the same time, George Hudson was relieved of command of the Choctaws, and his rival, Chief Peter P. Pitchlynn, took the Choctaws into "the million dollar battle" at Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, under Chief Stand Waite.
The Indians won, and Chief Stand Waite became a renowned Confederate general, while Chief Peter P. Pitchlynn was commissioned as a colonel.
James Hudson, the younger brother of Chief George Hudson became an Oklahoma Judge, and his son; Peter James Hudson was a well-known Choctaw educator.
George Hudson became a major figure during those early days and aside from his farming operations, practiced law before the tribal courts. He is reputed to have been a public speaker of some ability.
George Hudson served as a member of the Choctaw Council during the years 1844, 1845, 1846, 1849, 1850, and 1855.
In 1846 he ran but was defeat as a candidate for Choctaw Chief of the Apuckshenubbe District, and Thomas LeFlore was re-elected.
The Choctaws finally resolved their political difficulties by the adoption of the constitution that had been drawn up at Doaksville in January 1860.
George Hudson was the presiding officer of this convention that framed the Choctaw Constitution and had much to do in influencing its deliberations.
Later that year in October 1860 was when he was elected the first Principal Chief under the new Choctaw Constitution and served in the office until October 1862.
Threatening war clouds were beginning to gather throughout the country when George Hudson assumed the Chieftainship of the Choctaw Nation. In the succeeding spring of 1861 these clouds broke and the realities of war confronted him.
The Net Proceeds delegation headed by Peter P. Pitchlyn was then in Washington where they had just about accomplished a funds adjustment, but realizing that an affiliation of the Choctaws with the Confederacy would nullify their efforts, they hurried home and urged Chief George Hudson to take a position of neutrality.
This policy, Chief Hudson accepted, and with a message so indicating, departed to meet the special session of the Council that he had summoned to meet at Doaksville on June 1st 1861.
Robert M. Jones, an ardent secessionist, convincingly addressed the Council, attacking all who opposed secession, causing the Chief to abdicate his position of neutrality and counsel the appointment of a delegation to affect a treaty with the Confederacy.
Such a treaty was made at North Fork, Creek Nation on July 12th 1861 by commissioners appointed by Chief Hudson.
Earlier on June 14th that year Chief Hudson issued this proclamation:
"Whereas the general council of the Choctaw Nation, on the 10th day of June, 1861, by resolution, declared that in consequence of the dissolution of the United States, by the withdrawal of eleven States formerly comprising a part of said Government and their formation into a separate government, and the existing war consequent thereon between the States, and the refusal on the part of that portion of the States claiming to be, and exercising the functions of the government of the United States to comply with solemn treaty stipulations between the Government of the United States and the Choctaw Nation, said Nation was absolved from all obligations under said treaties, and thereby was left independent and free to enter into alliance with other governments, and to take such other steps as may be necessary to secure the safety and welfare of the Nation.
And whereas, the general council of the Choctaw Nation did further resolve, that the interest and safety of the Choctaw people require that an alliance be made with the Southern Confederacy, and did appoint commissioners to negotiate a treaty of alliance and enmity; and whereas the defense of the Nation against invasion, and the preservation of order, and the due execution of the laws of the Nation, which have been extended over all persons within the limits thereof, require the organization of an efficient military corps, and all of which it is proper should be made known to the Choctaw people and to the world;
Now, therefore I, George Hudson, principal chief of the Choctaw Nation, do hereby publish and proclaim that the Choctaw Nation is, and of right ought to be, free and independent; that all citizens and residents of said Nation between the ages of 18 and 45 years, subject to military duty are required to enroll either in the volunteer or the reserve militia, according to law and to hold themselves in readiness to turn out for the defense of the Nation at a minute's warning for the preservation of order and the protection of life and property or in aid of the civil authorities in the general execution of the law. Our position now requires that every effort be used to defend the country and repress all disorderly and unlawful acts."
Though the Choctaws did little fighting during the Civil War, although with the Chickasaws, they raised three regiments for service in the Confederate army. Despite the solemn admonitions of Chief Hudson, a condition of lawlessness with resultant cattle thieving, robbery and murder began to develop in the Choctaw country as the orderly processes of tribal government were defied.
Chief Hudson seemed powerless to preserve a peaceful posture of internal affairs and in some instances county officials ignored the situation. Chief Hudson was defeated in his effort to be re-elected, and in October 1862 was succeeded by Samuel Garland who was a member of the famous Net Proceeds Claim delegation.
He resumed his home on the Mountain Fork River where he passed away in November 1865.
The public career of George Hudson covered a period of marked development of the Choctaws.
In their enforced removal they had accepted a wild and remote frontier, but which they had conquered by a readjustment of their spiritual, educational and, ultimately, their political visions.
The tall, ministerial-looking George Hudson made his patient contribution.
I have found today (4/2/2009) some information at this link below that may be of intrest, if indeed this list shows Chief George Hudson as the "owner". Just look down the list for George Hudson.
The Children of George Hudson
Note: He was married to two unknown women, one of which was the sister of a man named Hopaiishvbbi.
#1 Johnson Hudson
Born: August 2nd 1827
#2 Nancy (Watson)
Born: July 4th 1828
Dawes Roll Card #477 Died before enrolment
George Watson "Nalishvbbi"
Dawes Roll Card #477 Died before enrollment
Note: Peter James Hudson states: Mrs. Nancy Watson, the wife of George Watson whose Indian name was Nalishvbbi was the oldest daughter of my uncle George Hudson, former Principal Chief. Her husband lived in Buffalo Creek Settlement.
Children of Nancy and George Watson
#1 Ramsey Watson
Born about 1858
Born the 6th of Oct, 1900
Amy list her age as 42 when Sophia was born
#2 Thomas Watson
Card # 477 Roll# 919 aged 39 at Enrollment
Her Parents: Robert and Martha James
Tom Watson, was the last Sheriff under the Choctaw Government. He was Sheriff when the last man was executed at the District Court at Alikchi.
The United States Government tried to interfere, but the Choctaws had already tried him and found him guilty of murder and sentence had been pronounced and the day set for his execution, so when the day came for his execution, they took him to the court ground and executed him.
James Madison Ennis, now postmaster at Antlers has for years been
one of the best known public characters in the old Choctaw Nation.
His record is especially interesting for his long service as a deputy
United States marshal.
"The last man executed under the tribal laws of the Choctaw Nation,
says Mr. Ennis, was William Going a member of the tribe by blood and a baseball player of considerable prominence.
He was shot in 1898, by Sheriff Tom Watson of Nashoba County at Alikchi, the old Court Town of the Third Judicial District of the Choctaw Nation, after having been convicted of the murder of Ishtimihoke, a Choctaw woman, whom Going thought was practicing arts of witchcraft upon him.
The execution occurred about the time Congress gave its approval of
Atoka Agreement, and the passage of the Curtis Act, which abrogated
the Choctaw Government to a great extent and deprived its Court of
jurisdiction to try cases.
The attorneys for Going made application to Judge Clayton, United
States judge for the Central District of the Indian Territory, which
included the territory in which the Going case was tried, for a writ
of habeas corpus, to stop the execution of Going, Judge Clayton heard
the case heard the case and after a thorough investigation decided
that he had no jurisdiction to interfere in the matter, and delivered
Going to the Choctaw authorities.
The judge of the Choctaw District Court resentenced Going and about the time for the execution an effort was made in Antlers to forestall the execution, and telegrams were sent to Judge Thomas that Judge Clayton was out of the district and that Going was going to be unlawfully executed.
Judge Thomas upon said telegrams issued an order staying the execution until the matter could be investigated, and sent the order to Antlers by telegram; the telegram was conveyed to the Choctaw authorities at Alikchi on the day set for the execution.
When this telegram was taken before the Choctaw judge he declined to be controlled by the order of Judge Thomas, saying that Judge Clayton had decided that the United States courts had no jurisdiction in the case and decided to let the Choctaw law and judgement of the court be enforced.
Abner Clay, an educated and brilliant young Choctaw was
<---Abner Clay is pictured on far right in this photo.
He told the court that in his opinion the execution should proceed. Shortly before 2 o'clock on the execution day, Going was stripped to the waist and made to kneel on a blanket spread on the ground.
His heavy irons having been removed in the
jail, he walked down between the lines of men to the site of the
execution. Every safeguard was placed around the execution, for Going
had the reputation of being a desperate man.
When he had knelt, a medicine man of the Choctaws painted a black spot on his left chest, supposedly over his heart, a deputy sheriff held each hand and Sheriff Watson, thirty paces away, after careful aim fired his Winchester.
The ball hit the center of the painted spot and passed
through the Indian's body. Going threw up his hands and fell
backward, but he was not dead.
Sallie Durant, an Indian woman, recalling similar occurrences of earlier years, suggested the use of water to complete the death job, and the suspicion has since been current one would not have died had it not been for the use of water.
Warrants were issued at Antlers charging the Sheriff, the
prosecuting Attorney and Clerk with violation of the order of Judge
Thomas, and James Madison Ennis, then deputy United States Marshall under Col. John Carroll at Fort Smith, was charged with their arrest.
Sheriff Watson came to Antlers and surrendered and the others were brought in.
Charges against them were dismissed when it was learned
that Judge Clayton was yet in his district when the order was issued
by Judge Thomas. This fact invalidated the order.
Judge Thomas was killed in 1914 by prisoners in the State Penitentiary at McAlester, during an uprising of convicts. At the time Judge Thomas was sitting in the office of the warden.
The Children of Thomas and Lizzie Watson (James)
#1 George Watson
Dawes Roll #921 Card #477 age 16 at enrollment
#2 Sam Watson
Dawes Roll #922 Card #477 age 14 at enrollment
#3 Silas Watson
Dawes Roll #923 Card #477 age 12 at enrollment
#4 Incie Watson
#1 Jimmy Dale
#3 Ora Mae
#6 Daisy Mae Watson
Born: May 31st, 1928
Died: January 7th, 2003
The Obituary of Daisy Mae Watson
Daisy Mae Watson 74 years old of Broken Bow, Oklahoma passed away Tuesday, January 7, 2003 at St. Francis Hospital in Tulsa Oklahoma.
She was born May 31, 1928, the Daughter of Incie Watson. She was a homemaker and enjoyed sewing, music, singing, her grandchildren and great-grandchildren and she loved to play bingo. She was the president of the Broken Bow Choctaw Senior Citizens Organization.
She was a lifetime resident of McCurtain County and a member of Myrtlewood Baptist Church.
She was preceded in death by her mother; three sisters, Ora Mae, Jackie and Marie; two brothers, Jimmy Dale and Wallace; three grandchildren, Rachel, Heath and Christopher, and one great-granddaughter.
The Children of Thomas and Lizzie Watson (James) cont…
Dawes Roll #925 Card #477 age 4 at enrollment
#6 Caston Watson
Dawes Roll #925 Card #477 age 2 at enrollment (shows same # as Susie for some reason)
Dawes Roll #926 Card #477 age 1 at enrollment
Source for above information on The Thomas Watson family: http://genforum.genealogy.com/bohanan/messages/53.html
Children of George Hudson Cont…
Born: August 27th 1830 Died: ?
Spouse: Nelson McCoy
Note: Nelson McCoy was the brother of Ebahotema and they both were cousins of Peter James Hudson, being that their mother and his mother were sisters who were daughters of Captain Meshambe. Nelson had an Uncle named Mayvbbii who was the brother of Widow Hudson, the mother of Chief George Hudson. This makes Nelson McCoy and his wife Adaline Hudson 1st cousins.
#1 Dora Hudson
(Daughter of Adaline Hudson & step-daughter of Nelson McCoy)
Note: Dora Married Nelson Christy who later murdered her and her cousin Virgina Winship. Dora had 1 daughter, name (unknown), and she was married as well....
#2 Cissie McCoy
Spouse: Wilkin Wall
later this same WILKIN WALL married ELZIE HUDSON, the daughter of Joel Hudson from his 1st Marriage.....ELZIE HUDSON's 1st marriage was to William McKINNEY..no children from this Marriage.
Nelson McCoy Wall
#4 Captain Washington Hudson
Born: October 22nd 1832
Note: Washington became a Confederate Captain of Deneale's Regiment of Choctaw Warriors:
1st Spouse: Adeline McCoy
2nd Spouse: Elizabeth Hudson Choctaw Card #2391 (Daughter of Judge James Hudson and Peshatema Miashambi)
Daughter: Ennis Hudson Born about 1857
Ennis Hudson married 1st: Silas Tonhika
#1 Otson Tonhika Choctaw Card #2392 was Born about 1876. Died?
Married Lucy Leandis Choctaw card #1249 Born? Died?
Richmond Tonihka. Choctaw Card #2394. born; Aug.9, 1902, enrolled Sept.18, 1902 Died?
#2 Salean Tonihka Choctaw Card #2393 Born about 1880. Died: ? Salean married Louie Wesley. Choctaw Card #1249 Born? Died?
Ennis Hudson (Tonhika) married 2nd: Ellis Louie Born about 1871 and Died June 1902, proof of death filed Dec.20,1902 - his enrollment was cancelled by the Dept. on July 8,1904
Father is Cholman Louie
Mother is Liney Tonihka Choctaw Card #2390
Born: Feb 1836 Died:?
1st Spouse: Mrs. Homa
She was a Daughter of Cornelius Homa who was the son of John Homa, a brother of Fuli Homa, Creek Indians, captured by Choctaw Allies under Gen. Andrew Jackson in Creek War of 1812, and afterwards adopted by the Choctaw tribe.
Children of Joel & Mrs Homa:
2nd Spouse was Margret Emmaline Lewis a Caucasion woman.
Children of Joel and Margret:
We also found this info at the link below and may be our Joel Hudson
Joel HUDSON died in Eagle County, OK. He married Margaret Emmaline LEWIS. Choctaw Indian
Margaret Emmaline LEWIS "Booma" married Joel HUDSON. Her mother was Wanda Lewis and Father was Samuel Lewis, Both Caucasian.
They had the following children:
Amanda Melvina HUDSON was born 6 Feb 1879 and died 10 Apr 1936. melvina was mother to Margaret Levenia Blue b. 4/15/1903 d. 5/18/1985 married Hampton Compala 6/16/1921
Children: Ivan Toby, Joel Daniel, Joe Henry, Evadean, Bob, and Hampton jr.
Ivan Compala, called Toby, married Judy Lee Evans, and they had 4 children: Jeffrey Alan, Bruce Michael, John Daniel, David Wayne.
Jeffrey Alan has Children Lana Compala & Ryan Caine Compala
M ii Henry HUDSON was born 1873.
Charley HUDSON was born 1878 in Sugar Loaf City, OK.
Born: November 11th 1837
#7 Eliza (Elizabeth)
Born: June 16th 1854
Born: September 15th 1855
Note: I also found this childs name in a listing for George Hudson, but am not sure if it is right.
#6 Napoleon Bonaparte Hudson
Concerning the Choctaw Nation under Chief George Hudson during The United States Civil War:
On February 18th 1861, the Choctaw Council instructed Chief George Hudson to confer with the Chickasaws, and on March 11th the two tribes agreed to jointly prepare for military duty.
On June 14th Chief Hudson ordered all male citizens and residents between the ages of 18 and 45 to ready themselves "for the defense of the nation at a minute's warning."
By this time, Confederate troops from Texas had already seized Federal posts in the Choctaw Nation.
On July 12th at North Fork Village in the Creek Nation, Choctaw delegates signed a treaty with the Confederacy.
The Choctaws and Chickasaws were to organize 10 companies whose service would be restricted to Indian Territory.
The Confederacy recognized absolute, perpetual Choctaw title to their lands, assumed all financial obligations of the U.S. Government, and agreed to provisions and to pay the Choctaw troops.
By July 31st 1861, the First Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, under command of Col. Douglas H. Cooper, were organized.
Other Choctaw units followed: The Second Regiment of Choctaw Cavalry under Col. Simpson N. Folsom. The Third Regiment of Choctaw Cavalry under Col. Jackson McCurtin. The First Choctaw Mounted Rifles under Col. Sampson Folsom. Deneale's Regiment of Choctaw Warriors under Col. George Deneale. And Capt. Williams Company of Choctaw Infantry under Capt. John Williams.
The Choctaw units were to see combat in 8 major battles.
The first was the pursuit of Union Indian sympathizers under Opothleyahola who was attempting to flee to Kansas.
The First Choctaw and Chickasaw Warriors engaged the fleeing party in battles at Round Mountain on November 19th 1861, at Chusto-Talasah (Caving Banks) on December 9th 1861, and at Chustenahlah on December 25th
On March 8th 1862, they fought at the battle of Elkhom Tavern, Arkansas, providing rearguard defense for the Confederate retreat.
On September 20th of 1862 they were again engaged at Newtonia, Missouri and under command of Lt. Col. Tandy Walker, charged and routed the Union infantry.
The Choctaws were also heavily involved in the largest battle to occur in Indian Territory: Honey Springs on July 17th 1863.
"Also at Prairie Springs on July 22, 1863, and Perryville on August 26, 1863."
In 1864 the Choctaws were again requested to serve outside of the Territory.
On April 18th 1864 the First Choctaw and Chickasaw Warriors saw action in the Battle of Poison Springs, 10 miles west of Camden, Arkansas.
Gen. Samuel Maxey commended the Choctaws for participating voluntarily and for performing their duty "nobly, gallantly, and gloriously."
In February of 1864, Union Col. William A. Phillips had struck deep into the Choctaw Nation.
The Choctaws refused to surrender, despite the widespread devastation being wrought upon them by the Federals.
Finally, by the spring of 1865, the Choctaws acknowledged the cause was lost.
On June 10th 1865, the Council asserted its right to surrender independently of the Confederacy. Nine days later, Chief Peter P. Pitchlynn surrendered the nation's military forces to Lt. Col. Asas C. Matthews.
Below is a report of an incident between Soldiers of the Civil War that mentions Chief George Hudson and his son, Captain Washington Hudson.
"On or about the 5th day of May in 1862 after the Battalion of Lieut. Col George E Deneale had disbanded and refused to obey marching orders & the camp being in the Choctaw Nation where the Quartermasters entire train consisting of horses, mules, wagons, and camp equipment were stationed, we attempted to remove the train out of the nation when an armed force consisting of parts of two companies of Choctaw Indians purporting to belong to Col Sampson Folsom's Regiment of Choctaw Indians and one company of Arkansas troops purporting to belong to Col Dawson's Regiment of Arkansas; troops proceeded to the camp where the property was, and by command of the Chief (George Hudson) of the nation who said he was acting under the orders of Col Folsom, forcibly took possession of all the property mentioned above (consisting of) commissary stores, & started out for Doaksville where the headquarters of Col Folsom's Regiment (was) (I was then) informed (that) said property was carried and delivered to Col Folsom or his quartermaster (along) with the capture of our ambulance and two horses..."
The Statement of CPT. R.M. Mooney (1st LT and Adj of Deneale's Rgt.
"I was ordered by Col. George E. Deneale to proceed to the Choctaw Nation and to take possession of certain wagons and teams, as well as other property belonging to the Col, and to deliver them over to James A.N. Murray, Quartermaster of said Deneale's Regt, and to his order, there was also in my possession an order signed by Capt James A.N. Murray QM to the same effect.
So that I might have no trouble about the matter or no apparent want of authority.
In accordance with the order, I proceeded to Lukfahtah and then (on) to Camp Pitchlynn where the property was (located).
I then ordered the teamsters to gear up and (to) start the teams (moving), so they were doing (that) when an armed force of about two hundred and fifty to three hundred men under the command of Capt. Leonidas Pitchlynn, (and) Capt. Washington Hudson who were Choctaws, and a white man called Capt. or Judge Flowers who demanded of me the unconditional surrender of the property.
The Chief, George Hudson was present assisting in the matter and in the authority under which he, the Chief and the other men referred to.
Peter P Pitchlynn so then read a document signed by Sampson Folsom and others and as they said authorized by Gen Albert Pike, stating that the property was in a suffering condition and must of necessity be taken care of and that they should take it into possession for reasons which seemed to me to be unreasonably foolish.
I was of course overpowered and the property was taken out of my possession by these men.
I left immediately to report the facts to Capt. Murray, Quarter Master and Col. G.E. Deneale.
And when I had gone about twenty-three miles from this camp I was taken prisoner by Capt. Leondias Pitchlynn of the nation and Capt. Flowers of the Arkansas troops before referred to, and they tied me up after stripping me of all my order papers and money, and took me to Col. Peter .P. Pitchlynn (with) the articles taken from me and I was captured (taken prisoner) in the state of Arkansas, and I have never received a single thing back (that was) so taken (from me).
I would further state of my own personnel knowledge that the reasons of the teams and property being left at this place were these: that the waters were so high that it was impossible to cross (there) and (that) the regiment at this place refused to march further or to obey the orders of Col. Deneale.
Chief George Hudson being present (there, as well) and urging them (in Choctaw which was interpreted then) to revolt and not to move out of the Nation.
One of the captains of the regiment (Hamilton), another Shoat, another Hudson, (decided) that they would obey no orders, nor leave the nation, and that they would not leave (the) Regiment and they were armed and prepared to resist any attempt to arrest them.
I know that the property was well taken care of by white men and Negroes who were left in charge of it by Col Deneale & Capt Murray and was not in a suffering condition or being wasted."
More Civil War Information
In the 1830s the United States government displaced the Choctaws from Mississippi and from the spiritual center of their universe, the sacred Mound of Nanih Waiya. After relocation they regrouped and developed a government based on male suffrage and representative democracy.
By the terms of the 1860 Doaksville Constitution the nation was divided into three districts and operated under an executive branch, a bicameral legislature and a national and county court system.
The Constitution legalized slavery and a law enacted in January of 1860 prohibited abolitionism. The Choctaws had a system of public education consisting of neighborhood schools and national seminaries. The Nation provided financial support for young men and women to attend colleges in the United States.
In 1860 the Choctaw Nation occupied the southeastern part of the Indian Territory. According to the 1860 census there were 13, 666 Choctaws, 804 whites, 67 free Negroes and 2,349 slaves in the Nation. Some were artisans and merchants in Doaksville, Skullyville and Boggy Depot but most were subsistence farmers. About 385 Choctaws owned large plantations or ranches and exported large amounts of cotton, lumber, and cattle.
Because of their support of slavery and their close ties to Texas and Arkansas they overwhelmingly supported secession. Only 212 Choctaws were ever identified as remaining loyal to the Union. On February 6, 1861 the Choctaw Council authorized its delegates in Washington to withdraw the Nation’s trust funds and deposit them in Southern banks.
The Council also instructed Chief George Hudson to send delegates to any intertribal conventions held to determine relations with the United States. Hudson was required to communicate with the governors of the Southern States, expressing the nation's regrets over “the present unhappy political disagreement” and its “natural affection for the South.”
On February 18th the Council instructed Hudson to confer with the Chickasaws. On March 11th the two tribes agreed to prepare jointly for military duty. On June 14, 1861 Hudson called for all male citizens and residents between 18 and 45 to ready themselves “for the defense of the Nation at a minutes notice.” By this time Confederate troops had seized the Federal posts in the Choctaw nation.
On July 12, 1861 at North Fork Village in the Creek Nation, Choctaw delegates signed a treaty with the Confederacy. The Chickasaws and the Choctaws would organize ten companies, whose service would be restricted to the Indian Territory. The Confederacy recognized absolute and perpetual title to Choctaw tribal lands, assumed all financial obligations of the United States, and agreed to provision and pay Choctaw troops.
By July 31, 1861 the 1st Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles under Douglas Cooper was organized. Other Choctaw units followed including the 2nd Regiment of Choctaw Cavalry under Simpson Folsom, 3rd Regiment of Choctaw Cavalry under Colonel Jackson McCurtin, the 1st Choctaw Mounted Rifles under Colonel Sampson Folsom, Deneale’s Regiment of Choctaw Warriors under Colonel George Denaile and Captain Williams’s Company of Choctaw Infantry under Captain John Williams.
These units served as home guards, but they did see action in at least eight major battles. First they fought Opothleyahola and his band at Round Mountain on November 19, 1861, Chusto-Talasah on December 9, 1861 and Chustenahlah on December 26, 1861.
In 1862, despite treaty provisions, the Choctaws fought at two engagements outside of the Indian Territory. On March 8, 1862 they joined the battle of Elkhorn Tavern Arkansas and protected the Confederate retreat and escorted a supply train to Elm Springs. In September of 1862 Confederate forces invaded Missouri and the Choctaws fought at Newtonia, Missouri on September 30, 1862
1863 was not a very good year for the Choctaw. On July 17, 1863 they were defeated at Honey Springs, Indian Territory. On August 25, 1863 they were defeated at Perryville in the Choctaw Nation. These defeats assured Union control of the territory north of the Arkansas River and opened the Choctaw Nation to invasion and constant raiding. Refugees were a huge problem for the Choctaw Nation. By August 1864 over 10,000 Confederate Indians were receiving aid from camps located near the Red River. By the end of the war more than 16,000 refugees were in the area.
In 1864 the Choctaws were again asked to serve outside the Indian Territory. On April 18th they saw action at the Battle of Poison Springs Arkansas. The Choctaws took a Union supply train, capturing 170 wagons and burning 30 more. General Samuel Bell Maxey commended the Choctaws for participating voluntarily and for performing their duty “nobly, gallantly and gloriously.”
In February of 1864 a Union force under Colonel William A Phillips struck deep in the Choctaw Nation and laid waste to the land. Phillips sent a message to the Council and urged it to “choose between peace and mercy and destruction”. The Choctaws refused to surrender, but by the spring of 1865 they realized defeat was fast upon them.
On June 10, 1865 the Council asserted its right to surrender independently of the Confederacy and did so on June 19th. On September 6, 1865 the Council appointed 21 delegates to treat with the United States at Fort Smith Arkansas.
On September 16th they began negotiations and ably defended their alliance with the Confederacy. A new treaty was not signed until April 29, 1866 in Washington DC. The war was finally over for the Choctaw Nation and the treaty ended slavery, and the tribe lost the western 1/3rd of their land.
Approximately 2,000 Choctaws still lived in Mississippi and 200 in Louisiana. They were deprived of treaty rights and barely eked out a meager existence.